Breaking Feature: Chewing Gum | What is gum made of? Alexa, How Should We Farm? Vitamin Labels | What Do They Mean? Grocery Shopping & Nutritional Trade-offs Do you know the carbon footprint of these common foods? 3 Different Types of Sugar Ancient Food Safety: A Story of Ice and Fire How chopping your veg changes its nutritional content Urban Farming | Grow Your Own Food Permaculture in Svalbard | Ethical Arctic Farming Modern Food Safety: Taken for Granted Plant Based Milk Alternatives: 5 Things To Consider The Brazil Nut | The Cost of Production Space Food Technology | Why we haven’t been to Mars yet Health Claims | The Asterisk: Friend or Foe? Health Claims | FAQs Saffron | How it’s Grown The Brazil Nut | How It’s Grown The Impact of Deforestation on Brazil Nuts Why is Himalayan Salt so Pink? Himalayan Pink Salt: Healthier or Hoax? How Health Claims Are Regulated Shelf Life & Food Waste | The Science & Tech Behind Shelf Life Insect Farming | How Insects Help Reduce Food Waste Plant-Based Milk Alternatives | Environmental Footprints Environmental Impacts: Organic vs Non-Organic Pesticides Are there pesticides in organic farming? The Science Behind Salt What Is Organic Food | Is it really chemical-free? Space Food Technology | What Astronauts Eat Perfectly Ripe Fruits | How Do They Do It? Salt Production | How It’s Made Food on Ships | Secrets to Preserving Food High-Tech Vending Machines Do you know the water footprint of these common foods? Pesticide Alternatives | Organic Farming Is Sustainability Really For Everyone? | Opinion Rice | The Italian Way The Surprising Sources of Protein That Are Not Animal Products Edible Flowers & How To Grow Them Instant Noodles | How Are They Made? Fish Farming | 3 Commonly Farmed Fish Sustainable Fisheries | The MSC Label Sustainability of Protein Sources | Ask the Expert Prebiotics & Probiotics | Ask the Expert Kimchi & Kombucha | How It’s Made Future of Food: Science or Fiction? Aquaponics | Sustainable Urban Farming How Cooking Affects the Nutrients in Your Food 4 Low-tech Food Hacks to Make the Most of Your Food Seaweed | Growing & Harvesting Farms 6 Things to Know About Compostable Plastic How to Eat Edible Flowers Coffee Brewing | The Science Behind the Make & Taste Sourdough | History Rises Again Fishing Gear, What’s More Sustainable? What Makes a Food Product Low-fat? Rice in Asia | How it’s Grown How to Get the Most Goodness From Your Garlic When Honey is Good & Ready Where is Your Fish From? Trace Your Food Back to its Source Spirulina | How It’s Grown Tea bags | Where do they come from? 4 Surprising Foods That Have More Calcium Than Milk Chickpeas | How It’s Grown Olive Oil | How it’s made Milk & Yoghurt | How It’s Made Frozen Peas | How It’s Made Flour | How It’s Made Canned Tomatoes | How It’s Made Vertical Farming | What’s the Deal Anyway? What does CRISPR-Cas9 do? How Flies Make Farming More Sustainable The Great Debate: Yes GMO or No GMO Why we vaccinate livestock animals GMO | How it works What would you do without these 8 foods Cheese—to pasteurise or not to pasteurise? How to save your food from pesky birds Food made with human bacteria exists CRISPR-Cas9 | How it works Almond milk – what’s the fuss? 5 Reasons to Use Edible Utensils Animal Vaccination (Meat Safety) | How it works 10 things you may not know about GMO 5 misconceptions about CRISPR to clear up Fuel made from food waste Can you throw away a microwave? Insect Crop Combat: Beetles vs Aphids Holy cow! Beef without cows? Did GMOs save papayas in Hawaii?
Things you didn’t know Marie Lödige

Where is Your Fish From?

Tracing your fish back to its origins

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Marie Lödige

Where is Your Fish From?

Tracing your fish back to its origins

Things you didn’t know Madhura Rao

3 Different Types of Sugar

Who knew there were so many different forms of sugar?

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Madhura Rao

3 Different Types of Sugar

Who knew there were so many different forms of sugar?

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Food revolutionThe evolution of food

10000 BCE

10,000 B.C.E. - Selective Breeding

Selective breeding sounds like something out of the 21st century, but it dates back to 10,000 B.C.E.! For centuries, people had intentionally selected the most desired crops that seemed to best withstand diseases or pests, and also crops that bore larger seeds or fruits. Today, breeding has advanced into new techniques like CRISPR.

8540 BCE

8540 B.C.E. - The Fishing Net

It’s hard to believe that a fishing net could be considered a technology, but before nets, people would hunt for fish, first with their hands, and later with spears and arrows. The fishing net allowed fishers to catch fish in large quantities. The oldest fishing-net (Antrea) was discovered in modern-day Karelian Isthmus, and dates back to 8540 B.C.E.

6000 BCE

6000 B.C.E. - Fermentation

People have been practicing fermentation since 6000 B.C.E.! Today, fermented foods are a great source of probiotics to help balance the microbes in our gut.

6000 BCE

6000 B.C.E. - Irrigation

Irrigation has been used since 6000 B.C.E., when the Egyptians and Mesopotamians used the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates rivers during their flood seasons (July-December). The water was rerouted to their crop fields, then drained to allow the crop seeds to grow. Today, irrigation is used on a grand scale to feed local and global populations.

4000 BCE

4000 B.C.E. - The Plough

The early ploughs that were driven by oxen were actually adapted from Egyptian hand-held hoes, first invented around 4000 B.C.E. Today, ploughs have their own engines and are driven by farmers.

3200 BCE

3200 B.C.E. - The Oven

The earliest ovens date back to the Indus Civilization around 3200 B.C.E. and were made of mud and brick. Today, our ovens come in all shapes and sizes—even kids can make their own treats with Easy-Bake ovens!

2600 BCE

2600 B.C.E. - Baking

Baking is one of the oldest forms of food processing. The first intentional use of leavening in baking was by the Egyptians in 2600 B.C.E. Together with the oven, civilizations have been baking for centuries. The ancient Greeks made bread-making into an art, baking goods in different religiously symbolic shapes. Before they were conquered by the Romans, the Greeks even developed over 70 different types of bread.

1700 BCE

1700 B.C.E - Refrigeration

In 1700 B.C.E, the first ice houses were built near the Euphrates river. Food refrigeration as a preservation technique dates back to ancient times, when people built pits with ice they harvested from rivers and lakes. However, it wasn’t until 1913 when the refrigerator as we know it today was invented for home use.

500 BCE

500 B.C.E. - Milling

Today, you can easily buy milled flour off the shelves at your local grocery store, but for millennia people had to work to grind down grains through hand operations. The first hand-driven milling machines appeared around 500 B.C.E. in Ancient Greece, with the technology later evolving to use animals as motive power in Ancient Rome, with evidence in Pompeii, Italy dating back to around 300 B.C.E. Ancient China took things one step further by developing the use of water-powered milling machines.

304 CE

304 C.E. - Agricultural Biocontrol

Agricultural biocontrol is a way to control crop pests by using the insect’s natural enemies against them. Its first premeditated use can be traced back to China, where weaver ants were used to protect citrus plants.

1778

1778 - The Threshing Machine

When the threshing machine was invented in 1778 by the Scottish engineer Andrew Meikle, it made the processing of grains a whole lot easier. Before this machine, farmers and their families and workers would have to remove each seed, husk, stem and stalk by hand. (I would hate to have that job!)

1810

1810 - Canning

Canning was originally invented in 1810 by Nicolas Appert, a Parisian confectioner and chef, to preserve food. Today, food is sealed into airtight containers and heated under steam pressure at 116-121°C at varying times depending on food acidity, density, and heat transfer capabilities.

1865

1865 - Pasteurisation

The pasteurisation process was invented in 1865 by the French chemist Louis Pasteur while studying microorganisms. Pasteurisation, also known as sterilisation, is used to heat-treat liquid (e.g. milk and beer) to kill harmful bacteria. It has helped to dramatically reduce the number of infant deaths historically.

1906

1906 - Freeze Drying

Freeze-drying dehydrates food to preserve its texture and quality. It was invented in 1906 by the French physicist Jacques-Arsène d’Arsonval to help preserve blood serum. It wasn’t until the 1950s, however, that foods began to be freeze-dried too. The process helps prolong shelf-life and reduces weight for storage, shipping and handling.

1924

1924 - Food Fortification

Food fortification is the process of enriching foods with extra micronutrients or supplements (like iron or other vitamins). It was first initiated as a response to public health crises. In the USA, the first form of food fortification was made in salt by adding iodine to prevent goiter. Food fortification helped end other widespread health problems like rickets, beriberi, and pellagra. Today, foods are fortified with other vitamins and minerals that are often deficient in diets, such as Vitamin D and iron.

1945

1945 - Percy Spencer

American engineer Percy Spencer invented the microwave in 1945 (by accident). He was working in a lab where he was exposed to microwaves which melted a candy bar in his pocket, and there the microwave was born. Microwaves are a staple product in many kitchens nowadays, heating and cooking food through electromagnetic radiation.

1982

1982 - The Genetically Modified Crop

The first genetically modified crop was harvested in 1982 to be resistant to antibiotics. The gene sequence in plant cells are taken and “edited” or removed to make the produce more resistant to insects, disease, and help improve shelf life. Today, gene editing techniques, like CRISPR-Cas9, have become much more precise and successful.

1995

1995 - Cultured Meat

Also called in vitro meat, cultured meat is grown from animal cells in a cool scientific vessel, instead of the actual animal livestock. The technique was first explored by NASA to find a new food source for long space voyages. By Summer 2013, the Dutch researcher Mark Post created the first lab-grown hamburger, which was grilled and happily eaten by food critics in London.

2005

2005 - CRISPR-Cas9

CRISPR-Cas9 is a gene editing technique that can “switch off” or replace unwanted genes by cutting them out from a cell’s genetic material. The CRISPR technique was accidentally discovered in 1987 by molecular biologist Yoshuzumi Ishino, but Cas9 wasn’t discovered until 2005 by Alexander Bolotin. Since then it has been applied to multiple effects. For example, CRISPR has been used to slow down the browning of food products like mushrooms and apples by “switching-off” the gene responsible for colour change.

2006

2006 - 3D Printing

While 3D printing had been used for years with other material, such as plastic and metal, it was first used with edible material in 2006. The first 3D food printer was created by researchers at Cornell University, and has since evolved to print amazing meals like sushi! 3D printing can even be used to create nutritional meals, packed with alternative protein and vitamins.

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You didn't know?Things you didn't know

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Did GMOs save papayas in Hawaii?

Did GMOs save papayas in Hawaii?

I’m not the biggest fan of papayas. But I know some people love it. Would you believe me if I told you that GMOs have saved papayas in Hawaii from going instinct? Of course, there’s controversy around GMOs, but its technology was intended to help crop production. Read on to learn about how GMO tech saved one of the world’s favourite fruits.

1/15
 How Cooking Affects the Nutrients in Your Food

How Cooking Affects the Nutrients in Your Food

It’s easy to see how roasting a potato, frying an egg, or microwaving some broccoli changes how those foods look and taste. But have you ever wondered how it changes their nutritional value?

2/15
How to Get the Most Goodness From Your Garlic

How to Get the Most Goodness From Your Garlic

Garlic has been used as medicine for centuries, and the latest research reveals that it is for good reason. But research also shows that we have been prepping our favourite herb wrong all along, and if we want to get the most from our clove we need to rethink some of our favourite recipes.

3/15
How Flies Make Farming More Sustainable

How Flies Make Farming More Sustainable

You’ve probably heard that eating insects can be a more sustainable alternative for protein. But, maybe you’re like me and love seeing sustainable changes, but just can’t bring yourself to eat them. Well, you can still have best of both worlds with insects as food for agricultural livestock. 

4/15
4 Surprising Foods That Have More Calcium Than Milk

4 Surprising Foods That Have More Calcium Than Milk

Milk and dairy products are a good source of calcium – but they're not the only way to meet your calcium needs. Here are four other foods that have more calcium than milk.

5/15
What does CRISPR-Cas9 do?

What does CRISPR-Cas9 do?

Did you ever think there could be ‘drama’ in science? Well, then let me tell you a bit about CRISPR-Cas9. CRISPR and Cas9 were first discovered in 1993 and the results of the first application in a lab were published in 2012.

6/15
Cheese—to pasteurise or not to pasteurise?

Cheese—to pasteurise or not to pasteurise?

Since its discovery in the nineteenth century, the process of pasteurisation has helped preserve food and made it safe to eat for longer.

7/15
The Surprising Sources of Protein That Are Not Animal Products

The Surprising Sources of Protein That Are Not Animal Products

Just because you don’t eat meat, doesn’t mean you have to miss out on protein. In fact, as the world’s population grows, more of us will have to turn to plant-based protein sources—or even insects—to meet our needs.

8/15
Can you throw away a microwave?

Can you throw away a microwave?

So, it’s been a while since you last bought a new microwave. It’s probably super greasy inside from all the pasta explosions that have built up over the years. The buttons are probably faded and sticky, and you start thinking it might be a good idea to buy one now that there’s a big Spring sale going on.

9/15
Urban Farming | Grow Your Own Food

Urban Farming | Grow Your Own Food

When we think of farming, we imagine rural landscapes with huge fields extending as far as the eye can see. For the most part that's true, but it's not the only way: urban farming in and around cities is on the rise.

10/15
When Honey is Good & Ready

When Honey is Good & Ready

Most of us enjoy honey and know the basics of the production. The bees produce the honey in their colonies, beekeepers take the honey (in their fancy suits) and centrifuge it to get to the sweet goodness.

11/15
4 Low-tech Food Hacks to Make the Most of Your Food

4 Low-tech Food Hacks to Make the Most of Your Food

You don’t always need fancy gadgets to make some kitchen chemistry. Here are four low-tech food hacks that take advantage of things you already own, with some basic science, to improve your food.

12/15
Tea bags | Where do they come from?

Tea bags | Where do they come from?

What is the first thing you think of when you hear the word tea? Chinese tea, British tea, green tea, black tea, or Starbucks tea? Or maybe you’re more of a tea expert if you thought of Assam tea, Oolong tea or any other specialties. Then as a tea drinker, do you buy loose leaf tea, or do you buy tea bags?

13/15
Coffee Brewing | The Science Behind the Make & Taste

Coffee Brewing | The Science Behind the Make & Taste

There are hundreds of ways of making a coffee, and everyone thinks theirs is the best. But what's the science behind coffee's flavour?

14/15
5 misconceptions about CRISPR to clear up

5 misconceptions about CRISPR to clear up

So, what exactly is CRISPR? It’s been in the news a lot recently, but the ins-and-outs of the technology seem to have been a bit lost in all the information. There are a few misunderstandings about what it’s all about, so here’s to clearing up the facts!

15/15

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Saffron | How it’s Grown

Saffron | How it’s Grown

Growing up in India where saffron is synonymous with luxury, I knew saffron as the ‘we’re expecting guests’ spice. Today at €25,000 a kilogram, it is the most expensive item in my neighbourhood’s supermarket!  Let’s take a look at what makes saffron the most expensive spice in the world.

1/13
Olive Oil | How it’s made

Olive Oil | How it’s made

Olive oil - you can use it for cooking, with salad, or even on bread with some balsamic vinegar. YUM! Have you ever wondered how it’s made? And what’s the difference between extra virgin, virgin and plain old olive oil anyway? Find out how the humble olive becomes the precious oil we all love and admire.

2/13
Chickpeas | How It’s Grown

Chickpeas | How It’s Grown

One of our favourite beans. Well, actually it is a legume. And to be scientifically correct, it is part of the Fabaceae family, in the subfamily Faboideae called Cicer arietinum.

3/13
Animal Vaccination (Meat Safety) | How it works

Animal Vaccination (Meat Safety) | How it works

Animals are exposed to diseases just like you and me. And just like us, they can be protected by vaccines. For example, a human disease that was eradicated through vaccination is smallpox. For animals, Rinderpest (the cattle plague) was a disease that was completely eradicated through vaccines.

4/13
Frozen Peas | How It’s Made

Frozen Peas | How It’s Made

I typically use frozen peas when cooking things like fried rice, pea soup, or mashed peas. But how are pre-packaged peas frozen? Take a look at how frozen peas are produced!

5/13
GMO | How it works

GMO | How it works

G-M-O. You probably know what it stands for: genetically modified organism. I know there’s been a lot of controversy around it. You might think it’s unnatural, that’s it’s bad for your health. Others say that it’s actually a cool technique to make crop production more efficient. So, is it good or is it bad? Well, GMO has its pros and its cons. Maybe learning how it actually works might help you make up your own mind about it.

6/13
Shelf Life & Food Waste | The Science & Tech Behind Shelf Life

Shelf Life & Food Waste | The Science & Tech Behind Shelf Life

Whether we’re in a supermarket or digging through the contents of our own fridge to make dinner, most of us make decisions about what to buy, cook, or eat by looking at the “use by” or “best before” dates on our food. But what actually determines a food’s shelf life?

7/13
Rice in Asia | How it’s Grown

Rice in Asia | How it’s Grown

“I cannot live without rice” – my mum has said this to me on more than one occasion. Perhaps that’s a tad exaggerated, but many people might actually agree with her because rice is a staple food for more than half the global population. You might have had it in sushi, with curry, or even baked into pudding. So, what do these grains go through before they end up in your favourite dishes?

8/13
CRISPR-Cas9 | How it works

CRISPR-Cas9 | How it works

CRISPR stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats. Quite a mouthful to say, isn’t it? Frankly, the acronym is a lot nicer.

9/13
Salt Production | How It’s Made

Salt Production | How It’s Made

Salt is used across industries and cultures, and has held an important place in society for over four millennia. But where does this versatile mineral come from?

10/13
Flour | How It’s Made

Flour | How It’s Made

So how does wheat go from grass to flour? How are some flour mixes fortified with certain vitamins? How are there different types of flour? Well, take a quick look here to see how flour is made!

11/13
Canned Tomatoes | How It’s Made

Canned Tomatoes | How It’s Made

Canned tomatoes can be used to make salsa, pasta sauce, soup and more. But how’s it made? Here are the steps food producers typically use to can tomatoes.

12/13
How Flies Make Farming More Sustainable

How Flies Make Farming More Sustainable

You’ve probably heard that eating insects can be a more sustainable alternative for protein. But, maybe you’re like me and love seeing sustainable changes, but just can’t bring yourself to eat them. Well, you can still have best of both worlds with insects as food for agricultural livestock. 

13/13

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